This image shows an artist's impression of a planet orbiting a red dwarf star.
Credit: David A. Aguilar (CfA)
Astronomers have discovered the most Earth-like planet outside our Solar System to date, an exoplanet with a radius only 50 percent larger than the Earth and possibly having liquid water on its surface.
Using the ESO 3.6-m telescope, a team of Swiss, French and Portuguese scientists discovered a super-Earth about 5 times the mass of the Earth that orbits a red dwarf, already known to harbor a Neptune-mass planet.
The astronomers have also strong evidence for the presence of a third planet with a mass about 8 Earth masses. This exoplanet - as astronomers call planets around a star other than the Sun is the smallest ever found up to now and it completes a full orbit in 13 days. It is 14 times closer to its star than the Earth is from the Sun. However, given that its host star, the red dwarf Gliese 581, is smaller and colder than the Sun and thus less luminous th planet nevertheless lies in the habitable zone, the region around a star where water could be liquid!
“We have estimated that the mean temperature of this super-Earth lies between 0 and 40 degrees Celsius, and water would thus be liquid,” explains Stéphane Udry, from the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) and lead-author of the paper reporting the result. “Moreover, its radius should be only 1.5 times the Earth’s radius, and models predict that the planet should be either rocky like our Earth or covered with oceans,” he adds.
“Liquid water is critical to life as we know it,” avows Xavier Delfosse, a member of the team from Grenoble University in France. “Because of its temperature and relative proximity, this planet will most probably be a very important target of the future space missions dedicated to the search for extra-terrestrial life. On the treasure map of the Universe, ne would be tempted to mark this planet with and X.”
The host star, Gliese 581, is among the 100 closest stars to us, located only 20.5 light-years away in the constellation Libra (“the Scales”). It has a mass of only one third the mass of the Sun. Such red dwarfs are at least 50 times intrinsically fainter than the Sun and are the most common stars in our Galaxy: among the 100 closest stars to the Sun, 80 belong to this class.
“Red dwarfs are ideal targets for the search for such planets because they emit less light, and the habitable zone is thus much closer to them than it is around the Sun,” emphasizes Xavier Bonfils, a co-worker from Lisbon University. Any planets that lie in this zone are more easily detected with the radial-velocity method, the most successful in detecting exoplanets.
The ESO 3.6-m telescope, which was upgraded in 1999, was used to identify the smallest exoplanet ever found.
Two years ago, the same team of astronomers already found a planet around Gliese 581. With a mass of 15 Earth-masses, i.e. similar to that of Neptune, it orbits its host star in 5.4 days. At the time, the astronomers had already seen hints of another planet. They therefore obtained a new set of measurements and found the new super-Earth, but also clear indications for another one, an 8 Earth-mass planet completing an orbit in 84 days. The planetary system surrounding Gliese 581 contains thus no fewer than 3 planets of 15 Earth masses or less, and as such is a quite remarkable system.
The discovery was made thanks to HARPS (High Accuracy Radial Velocity for Planetary Searcher), perhaps the most precise spectrograph in the world. Located on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, Chile, HARPS is able to measure velocities with a precision better than one meter per second (or 3.6 km/h). HARPS is one of the most successful instruments for detecting exoplanets and holds already several recent records, including the discovery of another ‘Trio of Neptunes’.
The detected velocity variations are between 2 and 3 meters per second, corresponding to about 9 km/h. That's the speed of a person walking briskly. Such tiny signals could not have been distinguished from 'simple noise' by most of today's available spectrographs.
“HARPS is a unique planet hunting machine,” says Michel Mayor, from Geneva Observatory, and HARPS Principal Investigator. “Given the incredible precision of HARPS, we have focused our effort on low-mass planets. And we can say without doubt that HARPS has been very successful: out of the 13 known planets with a mass below 20 Earth masses, 11 were discovered with HARPS!”
HARPS is also very efficient in finding planetary systems, where tiny signals have to be uncovered. The two systems known to have three low mass planets HD 69830 and Gl 581 were discovered by HARPS.
“And we are confident that, given the results obtained so far, Earth-mass planets around red dwarfs are within reach,” affirms Mayor.
UPDATE:Since this discovery, some scientists have said that Gliese 581 c may have a runaway greenhouse effect like the planet Venus, and therefore would not be habitable. Even if true, there is another planet in the same system, Gliese 581 d, that could possibly support life as we know it.
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