Designing a Lunar Rover
Study Aims to Maximize Scientific Return from Moon Rovers
NASA and other national space agencies are again focused on lunar exploration, which raises the question of how to best use semi-autonomous rovers to explore the Moon’s surface.
But the Moon is much closer than Mars and the round-trip message time from Earth is only about three seconds, not much longer than the time lag a cable TV newsroom experiences when contacting a reporter in Bagdad. The short time lag will change how scientists direct the rover and how they will use its instruments.
Lunar geology also is much different from Martian geology, so the rover will be looking for very different things, Yingst noted. For instance, lunar rovers will potentially be searching for a variety of basaltic lava types that will help explain the Moon’s thermal evolution. They also may search for ice at the poles, which might occur as permafrost or coatings of ice on rocky grains, she added.
Scientists also want to date portions of the lunar surface to field check their current estimates of the age of lunar formations. This is important because the ages of many other planetary surfaces in the solar system are keyed to the age of lunar landforms and the number of craters found on them.
The rover team will be followed by team of scientists that will use traditional field methods to study the geology.
“Human geologists certainly will be able to figure out a lot more about the geology than an autonomous rover can,” Yingst said. “We already know that. But then the questions are: What can they figure out that the rover can’t? How do they do that? And how can we use that information to make the rover smarter and more efficient?”
She emphasized that this method is a low-cost way to explore these questions because it doesn’t require building and testing costly rover prototypes. “We’re mimicking the methodology, without incurring the time or expense involved in dealing with rovers and space-qualified instruments in the field,” she said.
The results from this study will help scientists design more intelligent rovers and operate them more efficiently once they land on the Moon, she said.
The research team working with Yingst is composed of veterans from the MER mission. They include: Barbara Cohen, of Marshall Spaceflight Center; Larry Crumpler, of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History; Jerry Johnson of the University of Alaska-Fairbanks; Brad Jolliff, of Washington University at St. Louis; and Mariek Schmidt, of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History.
The research is being funded for three years under a grant to the Planetary Science Institute from NASA’s Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities program.