Terzan 5, Galaxy Building Block
Cosmic "DIG" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks
“The history of the Milky Way is encoded in its oldest fragments, globular clusters and other systems of stars that have witnessed the entire evolution of our,” says Francesco Ferraro, lead author of a paper appearing in this week’s issue of the journal Nature. “Our new study opens a new window on yet another piece of our galactic past.”
Like archaeologists, who dig through the dust piling up on top of the remains of past civilizations and unearth crucial pieces of the history of mankind, astronomers have been gazing through the thick layers of interstellar dust obscuring the bulge of the Milky Way and have unveiled an extraordinary cosmic relic.
The target of the study is the star cluster Terzan 5. The new observations show that this object, unlike all but a few exceptional globular clusters, does not harbor stars which are all born at the same time -- what astronomers call a “single population” of stars.
Instead, the multitude of glowing stars in Terzan 5 formed in at least two different epochs, the earliest probably some 12 billion years ago and then again 6 billion years ago.
The galactic bulge is the most inaccessible region of our galaxy for astronomical observations: only infrared light can penetrate the dust clouds and reveal its myriads of stars. “It is only thanks to the outstanding instruments mounted on ESO’s Very Large Telescope,” says co-author Barbara Lanzoni, “that we have finally been able to ‘disperse the fog’ and gain a new perspective on the origin of the galactic bulge itself.”
A technical jewel lies behind the scenes of this discovery, namely the Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD), a cutting-edge instrument that allows the VLT to achieve superbly detailed images in the infrared. Adaptive optics is a technique through which astronomers can overcome the blurring that the Earth’s turbulent atmosphere inflicts on astronomical images obtained from ground-based telescopes; MAD is a prototype of even more powerful, next-generation adaptive optics instruments.
Through the sharp eye of the VLT, the astronomers also found that Terzan 5 is more massive than previously thought: along with the complex composition and troubled star formation history of the system, this suggests that it might be the surviving remnant of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, which merged with the Milky Way during its very early stages and thus contributed to form the galactic bulge.
“This could be the first of a series of further discoveries shedding light on the origin of bulges in galaxies, which is still hotly debated,” concludes Ferraro. “Several similar systems could be hidden behind the bulge’s dust: it is in these objects that the formation history of our Milky Way is written.”
Understanding how galaxies behave and evolve can help astrobiologists determine how galaxies can affect the habitability of the solar systems and planets they contain.