How Long Has Titan's Chemical Factory Been in Business?
However, the most important raw ingredient in Titan’s chemical factory is methane gas. Methane is a molecule made up of one carbon atom joined to four hydrogen atoms. It should not last long because it’s being continuously destroyed by sunlight and converted to more complex molecules and particles. New research from NASA-funded scientists attempts to estimate how long this factory has been operating. The results are presented in two papers appearing in the April 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal.
These papers used data collected by two instruments onboard NASA’s Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn and one instrument on the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe that landed on Titan’s surface in January 2005. All three instruments were built at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. A paper led by Conor Nixon of the University of Maryland, College Park, uses infrared signatures (spectra) of methane from Cassini’s composite infrared spectrometer to estimate how much “heavy” methane containing rare isotopes is present in Titan’s atmosphere.
By modeling how the concentration of heavy methane changes over time, the scientists predicted how long Titan’s chemical factory has been running.
“Under our baseline model assumptions, the methane age is capped at 1.6 billion years, or about a third the age of Titan itself,” said Nixon, who is stationed at Goddard. “However, if methane is also allowed to escape from the top of the atmosphere, as some previous work has suggested, the age must be much shorter -- perhaps only 10 million years -- to be compatible with observations.”
Both scenarios assume that methane entered the atmosphere in one burst of outgassing, probably from the restructuring of Titan’s interior as heavier materials sank towards the center and lighter ones rose toward the surface.
“However, if the methane has been continuously replenished from a source, then its isotopes would always appear ‘fresh’ and we can’t restrict the age in our model,” said Nixon. Possible sources include methane clathrates, basically a methane molecule inside a “cage” or lattice of ice molecules.
The second Titan paper by Kathleen Mandt of the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, and colleagues also models the time-evolution of methane. In this work, the concentration of the heavy methane is determined from measurements by Cassini’s ion and neutral mass spectrometer, which counts molecules in the atmosphere of different masses (weights). Measurements made by the Huygens gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, which also counts molecules of different masses, were used to constrain the impact of escape on the heavy methane in the atmosphere.
“We compute that, even if methane has been replenished from the interior over time to match or exceed the amounts fed into the atmospheric chemical factory, the process must have been running for a maximum of one billion years,” said Mandt. “If the process had started any earlier, we would see a build-up of methane in the lakes on the surface and in the atmosphere beyond what is observed today.”
Together these papers add important new perspectives and constraints on the history of Titan’s methane atmosphere, confirming that it must have formed long after Titan itself. Previous work considering the evolution of Titan’s interior predicted the last major methane eruption occurred 350 million to 1.35 billion years ago, while crater counting has put the age of the current surface at 200 million to one billion years. (Crater counting works on the principle that an older surface has more craters, just as the longer you’re in a paintball game, the more hits you’ll get.)
The present work for the first time estimates the methane age from the atmosphere itself, at less than one billion years, considering both papers.