The Lazarus Effect
This is an example of the Lazarus effect, in which a group of organisms is found to have survived far longer than originally thought. Situating Necrolestes among its relatives in the fossil record answers one long-held question, but creates others; it reminds us that there is a lot we don’t yet know about the global impacts of the massive extinction event 65 million years ago and it challenges assumptions that the well-documented effects that occurred in western North America were experienced globally.
The scientific paper resolving the mystery of Necrolestes appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA.
A paleontological riddle
Since its discovery in Patagonia in 1891, Necrolestes has been an enigma.
“Necrolestes is one of those animals in the textbooks that would appear with a picture and a footnote, and the footnote would say ‘we don’t know what it is,’” says co-author John Wible, Carnegie Museum of Natural History mammalogist and member of the discovery team that also includes researchers from Australia and Argentina.
Wible is known for his work on the origins and evolutionary relationships among the three modern mammal groups: placentals (live-bearing mammals such as humans), marsupials (pouched mammals such as opossums), and egg-laying mammals (such as platypuses).
Despite being excellently preserved, the mysterious fossils moved from institution to institution and researcher to researcher, the classification of Necrolestes changing with each new move. As recently as a few years ago, Necrolestes still could not be definitively classified in a mammal group. A CAT scan of the ear region in 2008 led to another research team’s hypothesis that Necrolestes was a marsupial. This classification intrigued Wible’s co-author on the paper, Guillermo Rougier from the University of Louisville, Kentucky. As a specialist in South American mammals, Rougier was not convinced that the marsupial identification was accurate, and he embarked on his own attempt to make a classification.
“This project was a little daunting, because we had to contradict 100 years of interpretation,” admits Rougier.
During the process of preparing the fossil for further study, Rougier uncovered characteristics of the skull anatomy that had previously gone unnoted. Based on these newly revealed features, the research team came to the groundbreaking realization that Necrolestes belonged to neither the marsupial nor placental lineages to which it had historically been linked. Rather, Necrolestes actually belonged in a completely unexpected branch of the evolutionary tree which was thought to have died out 45 million years earlier than the time of Necrolestes.
In 2011, a newly discovered extinct mammal named Cronopio was the key that unlocked the mystery of the burrowing enigma. Discovered by co-author Rougier in South America, Cronopio belongs to the Meridiolestida, a little-known group of extinct mammals found in the Late Cretaceous and early Paleocene (100–60 million years ago) of South America. Not only were Cronopio and Necrolestesfound to have remarkable similarities, they are the only known mammals to have single-rooted molars—most mammals have double-rooted molars. This conclusively showed that Necrolestes was neither a marsupial nor a placental mammal, and was in fact the last remaining member of the Meridiolestida lineage, thought to have gone extinct 45 million years earlier.
“If we didn’t know those fossils,” says Wible of Cronopio, “we might have come to the same conclusion that everybody else had—that the relationships of Necrolestes were unknowable.”
The mass extinction that ended the Age of Dinosaurs wiped out thousands of species. Included in the devastation were the Meridiolestida, the mammal group to which Cronopio and Necrolestes belong, cutting short their evolutionary lineage—or so scientists thought.
Before the conclusive identification of Necrolestes, only one member of the Meridiolestida was known to have survived the extinction event, and that species died out soon after, early in the Tertiary Period (65–1.8 million years ago). Necrolestes is therefore the only remaining member of a supposedly extinct group. “It’s the supreme Lazarus effect,” comments Wible. “How in the world did this animal survive so long without anyone knowing about it?”
In the Lazarus effect, a species previously thought to be extinct is rediscovered—sometimes living, sometimes elsewhere in the fossil record. The Lazarus effect is well represented by the ginkgo tree, thought to be extinct until it was rediscovered growing in China in the 17th century.
The researchers believe that Necrolestes’s supreme burrowing adaptations are exactly what enabled it to survive for 45 million years longer than its relatives.
“There’s no other mammal in the Tertiary of South America that even approaches its ability to dig, tunnel, and live in the ground,” explains Wible. “It must have been on the edges, in an ecological niche that allowed it to survive.”
The researchers point out that other extinct digging species are known by many specimens, while Necrolestes is only known from a few fossils from a narrow geographic area. This means it was not abundant in its time, which fits with the model of a life form existing in a marginal environment.
Rougier comments, “In a way, while not related, it’s somewhat similar to how the platypus lives today. There aren’t many of them, they are found only in Australia, and they live in a specific niche among modern mammals—just as Necrolestes is an isolated lineage only found in South America, with very few individuals living among large numbers of marsupials.”
Rougier points out, “We can’t do that anymore. This story is more complex, a very distinct picture. We’re just getting there with South America.”
Carnegie Museum paleontologist Matt Lamanna, who has conducted expeditions to Patagonia since 1998, agrees that South America is a hotbed for new paleontological discoveries. “A lot of what we think we know about the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction comes specifically from western North America,” he confirms. “As the fossil record in other regions of the world continues to grow, our understanding of that extinction will undoubtedly continue to change.”
The research team is looking forward to filling in the 45-million-year gap between Necrolestes and its nearest known relatives, applying that knowledge to other related species that crossed the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction boundary—a seemingly South American phenomenon.