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Extreme Life and Environments
The highly alkaline Mono Lake, with a pH of 10 [most life is at least factor of 1000 less basic) pH 5-8]. The California Sierra lake is almost three times as salty as the ocean. Bacteria living here are near the world record (pH 11) for alkaline, bleaching survival. These unusual spires and knobs, called tufas, are formed when calcium-bearing freshwater springs well up through alkaline lake water, which is rich in carbonates. Photo Credit: Nancy Noever


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