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Asking About Arsenic
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: On December 2, NASA held a press conference to announce the discovery of a bacterium that has a novel biochemistry. The research made headlines around the world and sparked a great deal of scientific debate.

The Three Ages of Mars
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: While no place on Earth is exactly like Mars, various spots are quite similar to the red planet at different times in its past. A new study details the martian ages and the places on Earth that best resemble them.

Thriving on Arsenic
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Geomicrobiologist Felisa Wolfe-Simon has discovered a bacterium that appears able to use arsenic instead of phosphorus in its DNA. The definition of life on Earth may need to be rewritten.

Researchers Open DNA Time Capsules
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have discovered bacteria and algae that have been trapped inside fluid inclusions in salt crystals for thousands of years. The study could provide direct observations of how organisms have evolved over time and reacted to climate change on the ancient Earth.

Ocean Crust Teems with Life
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have discovered numerous and diverse bacteria in the deepest layer of ocean crust, even at temperatures close to the boiling point of water. The study provides new information about environments for life on Earth, and may have implications in the search for life on Mars.

Tracking Viruses Back in Time
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: How long have viruses been around? No one knows. Scientists at Portland State University have begun taking the first steps toward answering this question.

Looking for the Coolest Life on Earth
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: By studying life in the coldest places on Earth, scientists are learning about the potential for life on other planets in our solar system. Researchers are returning this year to the arctic island of Svalbard where they will test equipment for future missions to Mars.

Diving Robot Discovers Life in the Slow Lane
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have found amazingly diverse microbial life in the world's deepest water-filled sinkhole, even down where sunlight can't reach. The discovery adds new insight into life´s ability to thrive in Earth´s most extreme environments. This research also could aid the search for life elsewhere in our solar system, such as on Jupiter´s moon Europa.

Life after Catastrophe
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists studying deep-sea hydrothermal vents have found that larvae travel hundreds of miles to re-colonize these harsh locations after a volcanic eruption. The new study could challenge existing beliefs about how life adapts to extreme environments.

The Flight of Migrating Microbes
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Every day, millions of microorganisms travel with the wind from one place on Earth to another. Bacteria, funguses and viruses on dust particles can move thousands of kilometers. A team of researchers has now found that the phenomenon is escalating with climate change.

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