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Life at Blood Falls
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have discovered unusual microorganisms living in ancient water buried beneath an Antarctic glacier. The microbes could help us understand how life adapts to survive in extreme conditions. They may also provide clues about how life could survive on other locations in our solar system, such as Europa.

Better Living Through Chemistry
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: A new study on the harsh environment of deep-sea mud volcanoes is shedding light on how life might have survived on the early Earth, or could survive on other planets. The study was performed in the Gulf of Mexico where seafloor vents spew mud, oil, brine and gases that support life independent from the energy of the sun.

Microbe Mountain High
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have shown how gases from within the Earth support microbes at 19,850 feet high. They are the highest-known microbial communities on Earth, and highlight the ways in which life is connected to physical and chemical processes on our planet. They may also help scientists understand how to search for life on Mars.

Sinkhole Soup
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers are studying life in an extreme environment not typically known for extremes. The dense, salty water of sinkholes in Lake Huron supports bizarre ecosystems composed of purple cyanobacteria mats and other strange microorganisms.

Adapting to Vents
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: A unique bacterium living 2,500 meters below the surface of the ocean is providing clues about how life adapts to extreme environments. Scientists have identified genetic adaptations that allow the microorganism to survive in the waters surrounding deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

Extreme Worm
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have discovered a hardy Antarctic worm that has unique methods for surviving in one of Earth's harshest environments. The worm's adaptations include drying itself out and going into suspended animation when water is low, and the ability to release antifreeze when temperatures drop.

Life Above and Below
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: At the most recent NASA Astrobiology Science Conference, a panel of scientists discussed different types of planets where we might find alien life. In the second part of this series, T.C. Onstott digs beneath the surface to look for life, and Peter Ward weighs the odds of finding complex life in space and time.

Roping Extreme Life
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have discovered filamentous ropes of microorganisms growing in the cold waters of an Italian cave - 1,600 feet below the Earth's surface. The sulfur caves provide a truly unique environment in which previously unidentified microbes can thrive.

Underwater Clues to Alien Life
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists studying life around "black smokers" deep below the Pacific Ocean have discovered unique organisms that can survive in one of the harshest environments on Earth. The habitat may also provide information about how life could survive on other locations in the solar system.

Examining a SLIce of the Arctic
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: If aliens sent a probe to Earth in search of life, their best target would be the tropics, where life is dense. But on other nearby worlds, tropics are hard to come by. Most likely, if we find life elsewhere in our solar system, we'll find it in ice.

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