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Probing Arctic Lakes
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: The discovery that subglacial lakes in Antarctica are interconnected means that proper procedures may need to be established before scientists can penetrate through the ice to study them.

Soaking Up Radiation
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have found that fungi may be able to use radioactivity as an energy source for making food and spurring growth. The findings may have profound implications for how we understand the cycles of biologically available energy for life, and could also have important applications for space exploration.

Eating Ammonia
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Researchers have discovered a group of thermophilic archaea that are able to use ammonia as an energy source. This unique metabolic pathway has not been found in any other known high-temperature archaea, and will further our knowledge of how life has evolved to survive in harsh environments on Earth.

Fishing out New Species
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have found hundreds of new marine creatures in the vast, dark deep-sea surrounding Antarctica. The discoveries shed new light on the evolution and diversity of ocean life.

How Low Can Geologists Go?
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have begun the final leg of a five-year mission to reach the bottom of Earth's deepest known sinkhole. The mission could be an important step in developing missions to search for life in the liquid ocean below the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Europa.

Life in Asphalt
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have found that the La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles are home to hundreds of new bacteria species. The newly discovered bacteria have unique enzymes that allow them to survive and grow in heavy oil and natural asphalt.

Gazing at Medusa
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists have discovered a new 'black smoker' 8,500 feet underwater along the Pacific Ocean floor off Costa Rica. Now dubbed the Medusa hydrothermal vent field, this deep sea environment supports many unique organisms, including some species that may be previously undiscovered.

Mega-advances from Metagenomics
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: The emerging field of metegenomics allows researchers to study the DNA of entire communities of microbes simultaneously to advance our knowledge of Earth's most prolific organisms. Microbes can thrive in Earth's most inhospitable environments and are the most likely candidates for life in the Solar System.

Taking the Ocean´s Pulse
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute recently tested a new device, the Environmental Sample Processor, designed to probe the the ocean depths. Astrobiology Magazine Field Research Editor Henry Bortman joined them on a day-long voyage and filed this report on their progress.

Tibetan Microbe Mats
Topic: Extreme Life
Summary: Microbial communities in some of the world's oldest, driest and remote deserts may yield clues to the potential for life on Mars.

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