Dating A Star

The universe reached the climax of its star-building activity five billion years ago — more recently than previously thought — according to researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Edinburgh.

Centaurus A
X-ray jet from the center of Centaurus A, the closest active galaxy to Earth, at 10 million light-years away. The mystery of why all matter can’t escape from the center of this giant elliptical galaxy (if a black-hole is present), but a fine jet is blasted out is perplexing Credit: NASA Chandra/NOAA/NSF

The astronomers sifted through the fossil record of 96,545 nearby galaxies to chronicle the complete history of star formation over time. Their findings, reported in the April 8 issue of the journal Nature, also determined that the more massive a galaxy the earlier its stars were formed, indicating that galaxies form stars differently depending on weight.

"If we want to understand how structure in the Universe formed and evolved, then we need to understand the history of the stars," said Raul Jimenez, an assistant professor in Penn Department of Physics and Astronomy. "Fortunately we can read the history of the stars. By analyzing all of the light coming out of a particular galaxy that is, the entire spectrum of visible light we can effectively see the entire ‘fossil record’ of that galaxy at one glance."

oldest_1Asupernova
The oldest 1a supernovae known, lying near an elliptical galaxy at a distance of ~11.5 billion l.y., is shown as a bright incandescent cloudlike object in the above image.
Credit: NASA

While paleontologists generally need to dig down to find their fossil record, Jimenez and his colleagues needed only to look up, in this case to look up data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To sift through data from nearly 100,000 galaxies, Jimenez and Edinburgh astronomer Alan Heavens created a program called Multiple Optimized Parameter Estimation and Data Compression (MOPED) that analyzes spectrum data quickly by compressing information into more manageable blocks.

"Stars of different masses evolve with different luminosities, so by looking at the integrated spectrum of a galaxy we can track those different luminosities, their masses and, therefore, how long ago they were born," Jimenez said. "Our method takes into account all the stars that are present in the observed galaxies today and allows us to create the most complete history of star formation yet assembled."

According to the researchers’ findings, star formation in the universe peaked, on average, about five billion years ago. By the time our own sun was born, about 4.7 billion years ago, almost half of the stellar mass in the universe since the big bang was already created. Star formation has drastically dropped off since then and, as new stars are not being created faster than old stars are dying, this will lead to the gradual dimming of the universe.

The findings also show a difference in star formation between low-mass and high-mass galaxies. Galaxies with a higher mass, our own Milky Way among them, formed most of their stars well before galaxies of a lower mass did.

"The mass-dependence of the star-formation history explains why previous surveys showed a much earlier date for star formation, since those studies were only able to examine more massive galaxies," Jimenez said.

In an accompanying paper submitted to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Jimenez and his colleagues have explored how these results shed light on the assembly of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe that holds galaxies together.

Timelines

1990
- Hubble Space Telescope launches aboard Space Shuttle Discovery, as Earth Orbiting Observatory

1994
- Hubble Space Telescope finds evidence of black hole in the center of M87
- Hubble Key Project begins studying Cepheid variable stars to better define Hubble Constant, and the size of the universe

1996
- Sidney van den Bergh and Gustav Tammann debate Hubble Constant and the scale of the universe

1998
- Jim Peebles and Michael Turner debate nature of universe and whether cosmology is solved

1999
- John Cowan confirms age estimates of globular clusters and universe by dating metal-poor stars
- Wendy Freedman and Allan Sandage debate Hubble Constant and the scale of universe

2001
- Hubble Space Telescope detects an atmosphere around an extrasolar planet

2002
- Chandra X-ray Observatory finds evidence for new matter in "quark stars", matter so dense it exceeds terrestrial nuclear material with 1.2 million degree temperatures

2003
- Final mission in NASA Great Observatory series, the infrared observatory, or Spitzer Space Telescope, finds evidence for organic molecules in intergalactic regions
- Microwave measurements precisely date the Big Bang at 13.7 billion years ago, with a remarkable 1% error prediction

2004
- French COROT mission will look at 50,000 to 60,000 stars and should find a few dozen terrestrial planets and several hundred close-in gas-giant planets during a two- to three-year mission

2006
- Kepler, Extrasolar Terrestrial Planet Detection Mission, designed to look for transiting or earth-size planets that eclipse their parent stars [survey 100,000 stars]. Scientists expect to find thousands of planets, and perhaps 50 Earth-like candidates.

2007
- Likely de-orbit for Hubble Space Telescope [date announced assumes no planned shuttle visits from NASA]

2009
- Planned launch for NASA-ESA Next Generation Space Telescope, or NGST [James Webb Space Telescope], a near-infrared telescope that will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope.


Contributing astronomers also include Benjamin Panter and James Dunlop of the Institute for Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh. Funding for this research was partly provided by the National Science Foundation with a grant to Jimenez.

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