RESOLVE to Explore

NASA Team Demonstrates Robot Technology for Moon Exploration

While designing the lunar truck, JSC engineers threw out some traditional assumptions on what a vehicle needs — for instance, doors and seats — and added interesting new capabilities such as active suspension, six-wheel drive with independent steering for each wheel.
Credit: NASA

During the 3rd Space Exploration Conference Feb. 26-28 in Denver, NASA exhibited a robot rover equipped with a drill designed to find water and oxygen-rich soil on the Moon. It is important enabling technology that will allow human explorers to search for and obtain these essential materials in support of human settlements on the Moon.

Future human explorers on the Moon will conduct a number of important experiments related to astrobiology. One of the most important subjects of research is in monitoring how life adapts to living on the Moon – an environment far removed from the safety of Earth. Additionally, scientists will study the geology and physical properties of the Moon in order to gain a better understanding of the Moon’s origin and how its presence has influenced the biosphere of Earth.

"Resources are the key to sustainable outposts on the Moon and Mars," said Bill Larson, deputy manager of the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project. "It’s too expensive to bring everything from Earth. This is the first step toward understanding the potential for lunar resources and developing the knowledge needed to extract them economically."

The engineering challenge was daunting. A robot rover designed for prospecting within lunar craters has to operate in continual darkness at extremely cold temperatures with little power. The Moon has one-sixth the gravity of Earth, so a lightweight rover will have a difficult job resisting drilling forces and remaining stable. Lunar soil, known as regolith, is abrasive and compact, so if a drill strikes ice, it likely will have the consistency of concrete.

Meeting these challenges in one system took ingenuity and teamwork. Engineers demonstrated a drill capable of digging samples of regolith in Pittsburgh last December. The demonstration used a laser light camera to select a site for drilling then commanded the four-wheeled rover to lower the drill and collect three-foot samples of soil and rock.

"These are tasks that have never been done and are really difficult to do on the Moon," said John Caruso, demonstration integration lead for ISRU and Human Robotics Systems at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in Cleveland.

The Moon, our first outpost in the frontier of space.
Credit: NASA

In 2008, the team plans to equip the rover with ISRU’s Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction experiment, known as RESOLVE. Led by engineers at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Fla., the RESOLVE experiment package will add the ability to crush a regolith sample into small, uniform pieces and heat them.

The process will release gases deposited on the Moon’s surface during billions of years of exposure to the solar wind and bombardment by asteroids and comets. Hydrogen is used to draw oxygen out of iron oxides in the regolith to form water. The water then can be electrolyzed to split it back into pure hydrogen and oxygen, a process tested earlier this year by engineers at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

"We’re taking hardware from two different technology programs within NASA and combining them to demonstrate a capability that might be used on the Moon," said Gerald Sanders, manager of the ISRU project. "And even if the exact technologies are not used on the Moon, the lessons learned and the relationships formed will influence the next generation of hardware."

Engineers participated in the ground-based rover concept demonstration from four NASA centers, the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology in Sudbury, Ontario, and Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Institute in Pittsburgh.

NASA plans to return astronauts to the Moon by 2020. In order to establish lunar bases for long-term exploration, we must develop technologies to keep astronauts safe and healthy when travelling beyond the protection of Earth.

Carnegie Mellon was responsible for the robot’s design and testing, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology built the drilling system. Glenn contributed the rover’s power management system. NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif., built a system that navigates the rover in the dark. The Canadian Space Agency funded a Neptec camera that builds three-dimensional images of terrain using laser light.

All the elements together represent a collaboration of the Human Robotic Systems and ISRU projects at Johnson. These projects are part of the Exploration Technology Development Program, which is managed by NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va.

For more information about NASA’s exploration plans to the Moon and beyond, visit:

Related Web Sites

Astrobiology Roadmap Goal 6: Life’s Future on Earth and Beyond
Lunar Safety Zones
A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Astrobiology
Making a Home on the Moon
Moonbase Divining for Lunar Water?
Working on the Moon
Why the Moon?